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Effects of bystander CPR following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest on hospital costs and long-term survival
Resuscitation - DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2017.04.016
Background: Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is associated with a greater likelihood of survival to hospital discharge after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). However the long-term survival benefits in relationship to cost have not been well-studied. We evaluated bystander CPR, hospital-based costs, and long-term survival following OHCA in order to assess the potential cost-effectiveness of bystander CPR.
Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive EMS-treated OHCA patients > = 12 years who arrested prior to EMS arrival and outside a nursing facility between 2001 and 2010 in greater King County, WA. Utstein-style information was obtained from the EMS registry, including 5-year survival. Costs from the OHCA hospitalization were obtained from the Washington State Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System. Cost effectiveness was based on hospital costs divided by quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for a 5-year follow-up window.
Results: Of the 4,448 eligible patients, 18.5% (n = 824) were discharged alive from hospital and 12.1% (n = 539) were alive at 5 years. Five-year survival was higher in patients who received bystander CPR (14.3% vs. 8.7%, p < 0.001) translating to an average 0.09 QALYs associated with bystander CPR. The average (SD) total cost of the initial acute care hospitalization was USD 19,961 (40,498) for all admitted patients and USD 75,175 (52,276) for patients alive at year 5. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio associated with bystander CPR was USD 48,044 per QALY.
Conclusion: Based on this population-based investigation, bystander CPR was positively associated with long-term survival and appears cost-effective.